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The twin studies are an essential subject in understanding the link between nature/nurture or genetic/environment. Basically, the twin study demonstrates how many environmental factors affect an individual’s likely hood of developing a health condition vs genetics factors contributing to the development of health conditions. For example, through the observation of a set of monozygotic twins, we learned that the development of a certain health condition had an environmental factor of 80% and a genetic factor of 20%. This means, adjusting the environmental factor would reduce the efficiency of the disease attack ratio on the twins.

An example of using a twin study to examine the gene-environment interaction is smoking development in monozygotic twins. The method of study will be a case-parent approach study, which is a study that uses the parent as a control. The premises of the examination are a smoking-addict mother giving birth to a set of monozygotic twins. Due to the financial situation, one of the twins was given up for adoption. Over a course of 30 years, these twins were observed to see if gene or environment would contribute to the development of smoking. The methods used to collect data is a phenotypic measure by noting how many cigarettes per day were smoked and a genotype measure of analyzing the gene to see if the twins have a smoking allele received from the mother.

The data showed that through analysis of the gene, the twins had a smoking allele, therefore, the twins had a 30% risk of developing a smoking habit due to the mother’s gene influence. However, twin one who stayed with the mother had an environmental factor of 40%, such as dieting, high-stress levels, and alcohol (similar to the mother), which activated the expression of the smoking gene. Therefore, this individual had an overall 70% risk of smoking, which was due to gene-environment and this twin was smoking 3-4 packs a day between 20-30 years of age. Whereas, twin 2, because of the 30% gene factor and 0% environmental risk factor (not similar to the mother), this individual had an overall 30% risk of smoking, which they did not smoke. However, if twin 2 had environmental factors that affected the gene expression of smoking (similar to the mother), then there would be a higher risk factor of twin 2 smoking.

There are various methods for studying gene-environment interaction such as analytical methods of case-only study and empirical Bayes. There are also environmental exposure and functional validation and discovery, such as large public databases like the cancer genome atlas (McAllister et al., 2017).

Reference

McAllister, K., Mechanic, E.L., Amos, C., Aschard, H., Blair, A.I., Chatterjee, N., … Witte, S.J. (2017). Current Challenges and New Opportunities for Gene-Environment Interaction Studies of Complex Diseases. American Journal of Epidemiology, 186(7), 753-761. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwx227

Respond to the bold paragraph ABOVE by using one of the option below… in APA format with At least two references and a minimum of 200 words….. .(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.)

  • Ask a probing question.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting.
  • Offer and support an opinion.

  • Validate an idea with your own experience.
  • Make a suggestion.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting.


Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.

REMEMBER IN APA FORMAT JOURNAL TITLES AND VOLUME NUMBERS ARE ITALICIZED.

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