Please read the attachments below for the full assignment.

Business Finance



In


Module


Four,




you


learned


about


crime


trends


and


how


to


establish


patterns


to


predict


future


behavior.




In


Module


Five,




you


will


take


a


look


at


some


of


the


major


criminological


theories


that


explain


why


people


commit


crime.




These


theories


are


an


important


aspect


of


the


research


process,




and


they


will


ultimately


guide


you


in


your


decision-making


process.



There


are


many


published


assumptions


that


offer


an


explanation


behind


a


person’s


motivation


to


commit


crime.




A


few


of


the


most


prevalent


criminological


theories


used


by


criminal


justice


professionals


today


are


listed


below.




  • Rational


    choice


    theory




    offers


    the


    explanation


    that


    people


    commit


    crime


    rationally


    after


    weighing


    their


    options.




    For


    example,




    after


    their


    options


    are


    weighed,




    they


    make


    the


    choice


    that


    the


    reward


    of


    the


    criminal


    act


    is


    worth


    the


    risk


    of


    punishment.




  • Labeling


    theory




    takes


    a


    different


    approach


    by


    explaining


    that


    people


    are


    more


    likely


    to


    be


    influenced


    by


    the


    classifications


    of


    society.




    For


    example,




    someone


    convicted


    for


    breaking


    into


    cars


    would


    be


    labeled


    a


    criminal


    and


    thus


    would


    be


    predisposed


    to


    commit


    the


    same


    offense


    again.




    Whereas


    if


    an


    offender


    is


    arrested


    but


    not


    convicted


    of


    the


    crime,




    they


    may


    be


    less


    likely


    to


    commit


    the


    same


    type


    of


    crime.




  • Deterrence


    theory




    assumes


    that


    people


    in


    society


    have


    some


    semblance


    of


    rationality


    and


    are


    actively


    aware


    of


    the


    consequences


    of


    their


    actions.




    For


    example,




    when


    an


    offender


    commits


    a


    crime,




    he


    or


    she


    expects


    certain


    rewards


    from


    the


    incident.




    If


    crime


    is


    to


    be


    reduced,




    the


    punishment


    must


    be


    more


    significant


    than


    the


    potential


    reward


    for


    committing


    the


    crime.



Deductive


and


inductive


reasoning


are


also


important


to


the


field


of


criminal


justice,




as


they


go


hand


in


hand


with


qualitative


and


quantitative


research


methods.




Deductive


reasoning


starts


with


a


premise


which


you


believe


to


be


the


truth.




You


then


figure


out


other


principles


that


would


have


to


be


true


based


on


your


foundational


premise.




Inductive


reasoning


is


quite


the


opposite,




in


that


you


are


presented


with


some


data


first.




After


the


data


is


presented,




you


begin


to


draw


general


conclusions


on


facts


that


can


be


taken


from


that


data.




You


figure


out


which


criminological


theory


or


theories


you


could


apply


to


the


data.



In


deductive


reasoning,




you


will


frequently


see


quantitative


research


design,




whereas


with


inductive


reasoning


you


will


see


qualitative


research


design.


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