Please respond to the 2 separate discussion post marked Post 1 and Post 2 with at least 200 words and 1 APA citation.
- Chapter 10 in Operations Management: Sustainability and Supply Chain Management
- Bergsten, E. L., Mathiassen, S. E., Larsson, J., & Kwak, L. (2018). Implementation of an ergonomics intervention in a Swedish flight baggage handling company—A process evaluation. Plos ONE, 13(3), 1-17. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0191760
- Oldham, G. R., & Fried, Y. (2016). Job design research and theory: Past, present and future. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 136, 20-35. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2016.05.002
- Parker, S. K., Morgeson, F. P., & Johns, G. (2017). One hundred years of work design research: Looking back and looking forward. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 403-420. doi:10.1037/apl0000106. Retrieved from https://msu.edu/~morgeson/parker_morgeson_johns_2017.pdf
- Cramer, J., & Krueger, A. B. (2016). Disruptive change in the taxi business: The case of Uber†. American Economic Review, 106(5), 177-182. doi:10.1257/aer.p20161002
- Higgins, N. A., Talone, A. B., Fraulini, N. W., & Smither, J. A. (2017). Human factors and ergonomics assessment of food pantry work: A case study. Work, 56(3), 455-462. doi:10.3233/WOR-172511
- Carney, L. J. (2015). Major League Baseball’s ‘foul ball’: Why Minor League Baseball players are not exempt employees under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Journal of Corporation Law, 41(1), 283-312.
- Dubal, V. B. (2017). The drive to precarity: a political history of work, regulation, & labor advocacy in San Francisco’s taxi & Uber economies. Berkeley Journal of Employment & Labor Law, 38(1), 73-135. doi:10.15779/Z38KW57H5S
- Human Measurements by Open Ergonomics Ltd. website
- Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
- Office Ergonomics at University of Toronto website
- Operations Management textbook companion website for the 11th and 12th editions
“The possibility that employees change in response to the content and demands of their jobs, suggests the need for dynamic versus static models of job design”. This suggests that job redesign is best considered when making adjustments to jobs to ﬁt employees’ needs or newly developed skills (Oldham & Fried, 2016). Regarding the influence of job design on work motivation; the most dominant indicators are feedback, performance appraisal, and social sense of togetherness. Feedback provides employees with insight into objective thinking and judgment of themselves which assists in creating a social sense of togetherness and sense of belonging. Internal reward also encourage employees to show good performance and continuous positive work motivation (Al-Musadieq et al, 2018). Based on the analysis of the Indonesian national construction consulting study, it can be concluded that job design and organizational culture have a significant direct influence on the performance of employees and work motivation; and that job design contributes an indirect influence on the performance of employees through work motivation mediation variables (Al-Musadieq et al, 2018).
In 1992, Fluor was selected as the management contractor for the Department of Energy’s Fernald site closure project. “The site generated over 6 million tons of liquid and solid wastes and emitted over 1 million pounds of uranium into the atmosphere from its production stacks while accomplishing its Cold War mission”. Fluor was responsible for the completion of environmental studies, closure of the facility, and the development and implementation of cleanup remedies in cooperation with the community and regulators (Varchol & Carr, 2007).
One challenge to Fluor was maintaining the labor and skills mix to complete the project while still reducing the workforce. Additionally, there was a need for the reallocation of personnel based on changing priorities and needs of the project. “To address this challenge, Fluor developed a labor-planning methodology customized to forecast long-term project requirements, identify specific skills mix to accomplish the work through closure, and assign specific end dates to each team member” (Varchol & Carr, 2007). Fluor worked to change the workforce mentality from “production and long-term career minded” to “cleanup and closure minded”. This was accomplished through transitioning and retraining to execute the site’s new cleanup mission and later transitioning the workforce to accept and support site closure (Varchol & Carr, 2007).
Al-Musadieq, M., Kusdi, R., & Solimun, S. (2018). The mediating effect of work motivation on the influence of job design and organizational culture against HR performance. The Journal of Management Development, 37(6), 452–469.
Oldham, G., & Fried, Y. (2016). Job design research and theory: Past, present and future. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 136, 20–35.
Varchol, B. & Carr, D. (2007). The Fernald closure project: from weapons to wetlands. Project Management Institute. Newtown Square, PA.
Should Global Labor Standards Exist
Labor standards should exist in some capacity and if you look at some countries or even industries what you will find is that labor standards do exist to a certain extent.According to Toffel, Short, & Ouellet, (2014) labor standards were historically driven by states, through domestic labor law, participation in intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) like the International Labour Organization (ILO), and trade agreements.As economic globalization has extended supply chains around the globe, outside the reach of any one state’s jurisdiction, the focus of efforts to improve global workplace conditions has shifted from states and IGOs to private entities like multinational corporations (MNCs), nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and multi-stakeholder certification regimes.
As state and non-state organizations continue to bring awareness to issues such as child labor, forced labor and human trafficking labor standards will continue to increase.As eluded to above, a significant amount of countries have a state labor office similar to the United States Bureau of International Labor Affairs.The Bureau of International Affairs created the Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking (OCFT) to not only combat those issues domestics, but internationally as well working with countries and organizations all over the world (Bureau of International Labor Affairs, n.d.).
Some organizations even take it a step further and implement their own labor standards.The Walt Disney Company for example has their own international labor standards.The company establishes a code of conduct for all manufacturers, licensee and vendors.Walt Disney not only focuses on how the products are manufactured and the methods but they also address things such as child labor, involuntary labor, coercion and harassment, nondiscrimination, association, health and safety, subcontracting and compliance.The problem is not whether international labor standards exists or should exists, the issue is adherence to the global labor standards embodied in codes of conduct is in countries who acknowledge and participate in international labor treaties or organizations to begin with.
Toffel, M., Short, J., & Ouellet, M. (2015).Codes in Context: How States, Markets, and Civil Society Shape Adherence to Global Labor Standards. Regulation & Governance. 9 (3), 205-223. https://doi.org/10.1111/rego.12076
Bureau of International Labor Affairs, (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/about-us/mission (Links to an external site.)
Walt Disney Company (January 2017). Retrieved from