Please help me answer the following posts.
Conflicts are inevitable, and in todayâ€s world, it is not only important for better conflict resolution intervention principles to be applied but also necessary. Various authors have pointed out that â€œintervention that came after the conflict had escalated elicits more control-oriented strategiesâ€ (Rubin et al., 1994; Pinkley et al., 1995). Conflict resolution is the best weapon through which the entire humanity and posterity can be protected from the scourge of war and violence (Wani, 2011). â€œMost intractable conflicts require outside intervention in order to be constructively transformed or resolvedâ€ (Burgess, 2004). Some of the principles include identifying the source of the conflict, considering all perspectives presented by the conflict, discussing ways to meet a common goal, identification of the common solutions between the parties and finally resolving the conflict (Wallensteen, 2015).
Identification of the source of the conflict
A successful conflict resolution process involves identification of the source of conflict and the reasons behind the conflict. Since the lack of adequate information on the elements of the conflict has the potential for making the situation worse, it is increasingly important to verify the issues presented and the points of views expressed. Questions are instrumental in obtaining the truth and finding the source of conflict. While conducting this part of the process, it is important for impartiality to be exercised.
Consider all perspectives presented by the conflict
Consideration of both parties which is essence is showing impartiality the resolution process is significant. Conflicting parties should be allowed to share their side of the story in a manner that is civil and provide all the information without omitting details. All the perspectives should be presented to the resolution facilitator or mediator and then an analysis of the common themes that are causing the conflict conducted. It is possible that the source of the conflict is a minor issue that over time incrementally causes involved parties a lot of stress. Helping the parties be calm is one of the ways that can be used in focusing on the minor issue and stopping the triggers and eventually the conflict. To do this, you need to discuss what needs are not being met on both sides of the conflict and ensure mutual understanding. During the process, obtain as much information as possible on each sideâ€s point of view. Continue to ask questions until you are certain that all parties involved (you and those on either side of the conflict) understand the issue.
Discuss ways to meet the common goal
After listening to the parties, calming them and hearing both perspectives, the next best thing is to have each side present alternative solutions to the problem. This involves listening, communicating, and brainstorming together. . â€œEffective listening comprises of taking into consideration the intonations as well as body language displayed by a certain partyâ€ (Bercovitch, and Richard, 2009). This part of the process allows the parties to identify the solution that iscommon to both of them and also provides the mediator with different approaches to solving the problem in a manner that does not benefit one of the parties only. The solution provided can be biased seeing that the involved parties suggest them, but common ground can be found in the process. Soliciting answers and solutions from the parties affords them the opportunity to stop the name-calling, shouting matches and pointing fingers at each other and they become more invested in getting a long-term solution. Continue working with both sides to discuss ways that they can meet the goal they agreed on in step 2. Keep going until all the options are exhausted.
Identifying the resolutions that are acceptable to the conflicting parties and resolving the conflict
Conflicts occur due to differences in interest among two parties. To come up with a real conflict resolution method, a person should establish why certain outcomes are relevant to the conflicting parties (Ramsbotham, Woodhouse, and Miall, 2011). Besides, parties involved should establish the importance of the issue causing conflict among the parties. Through this one will be able to bring the two parties into a consensus according to their different differences. Hearing the solutions given is helpful in devising the best options to both parties and ending the conflict. The conflicting parties have to agree to the solution presented and also adhere to it to avoid a repeat of the same problem. The end of the conflict resolution intervention process means having both parties agree and adhere to the solution given. Most often the involved parties shake hands over the agreement.
Bercovitch, Jacob., and Jackson, Richard. 2009. â€œConflict Resolution in the Twenty-First Century Principles, Methods, and Approachesâ€. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Burgess, Heidi. 2004. “Intervention Processes.” Beyond Intractability. Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Accessed November 21, 2019 from https://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/large_s…
Pinkley, R.L., Brittain, J., Neale, M.A. and Northcraft, G.B. 1995. â€œManagerial third-party dispute intervention: an inductive analysis of intervenor strategy selectionâ€, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 80, pp. 386-399.
Ramsbotham Oliver, Woodhouse Tom, and Miall Hugh. 2011. â€œContemporary Conflict Resolutionâ€. John Wiley (Polity).
Rubin, J.Z. 1983, â€œThe use of third parties in organizations: a critical responseâ€, in Bazerman,M.H. and Lewicki, R.J. (Eds), Negotiation in Organizations, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA,pp. 214-224.
Wani, Hilal A. 2011. â€œUnderstanding Conflict Resolution,â€ International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 1(2). Accessed November 20, 2019 from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hilal_Wani3/publication/312146776
Wallensteen, Peter. 2015. â€œUnderstanding Conflict Resolution: War, Peace and the Global Systemâ€. 4th Edition Sage Publications Ltd., London.
What are two potential conflicts solutions (two for each side) that might be helpful to “resolve” the Chechen conflict?
In the last three decades, China has demonstrated a vast growth and development in all aspects that have brought a significant concern among Neo-realist students of international relations. â€œThe rise of the Peopleâ€s Republic of China has created significant debate for 21stCentury international politicsâ€ (Whyte 2013). Neo-realist ensures the proper distribution of power and national interest. Breslin (2010), suggests that, â€œin many respects, the interest in the rise of Chinaâ€s soft power should be seen alongside the concomitant concern about the loss of US soft power in particular, and challenges to US hegemony in generalâ€ (Breslin, 2010). China is in many ways mimicking Americaâ€s own emergence as a great power; the largest and potentially most powerful state in Asia, â€œis seeking a more assertive political, military, and economic role in the region, and even challenging Americaâ€s present dominance in East Asiaâ€ (Layne, 2008). Zhang defines China â€œas a rising civilizational state and argues that as such it should not accept the Western political model, otherwise it will lose its advantages and risks disintegrationâ€ (Zhang, 2011).
Daniel Bell argues that Westerners tend to divide the political world into â€œgoodâ€ democracies and â€œbadâ€ authoritarian regimes. But the Chinese political model does not fit neatly in either category (Bell, 2015). Over the past three decades, â€œChina has evolved a political system that can best be described as political meritocracyâ€ (Bell, 2015). The Chinese model is a political reform made by China after the cold war. China set out on its independent political strategy while other nations sort to embrace the western changes. It is this independence that has led to the upcoming of the Chinese Model. The Chinese model is unique from other reforms in that the market system of the economy propels it and at the end develops its political path (Li, 2015). â€œThe China model sees commerce as a means to promote national interests, and not just to empower (and potentially to make wealthy) individuals. And for over three decades, China’s model of development has delivered staggering successesâ€ (Kurlantzick, 2013). The China model incorporates four main pillars which are preliminarily focusing on a state-led development, making development a priority, focusing on good governance, and making gradual reforms with time (Zhang, 2011).
The state-led development ideal is based on the idea that the state in China directly controls the economy and owns most of the enterprises thereby creating a politically stable regime (Zhang, 2011). The state-led development ideal is based on the idea that the state in China directly controls the economy and owns most of the enterprises thereby creating a politically stable regime. Over the last three decades, the Chinese economy has attracted significant amount of foreign direct investment, and has become the largest trading country (Li, 2015). Such remarkable successes were attributable to the model of the developmental state (Zhang, 2011). China was able to prioritize the need for democracy and development. While other nations rushed for equality, the model aligned that the move would only make China collapse as seen by other economies such as the Soviet Union. The Chinese model challenged that a working economy could now try luxuries such as democracy. Furthermore, the model insists that with good governance, there is the likelihood of an improving economy due to…