DBA Program Journey
Reflect on the first stage in your DBA journey. What competencies and skills have you developed and enhanced? What are you aspirations as a DBA scholar? What are your aspirations as a DBA practitioner?
Your submitted paper must meet the following requirements:
- Follow current APA guidelines for style and format, including a cover page and headings.
- First-person writing is acceptable for this assignment.
- 2-pages (500 words).
- No reference page needed.
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Discussion # 1 (Need Reply – 75-words)
The purpose of this discussion is to present the main concepts presented and discussed in Unit 5 about Human Resources Management. Human Resources Management is changing, and employers need to understand the new landscape to lead their employees Swart & Kinnie, 2014). Winter and Jackson (2014) presented an article about the needs of a younger worker compared to older generations in the workplace. In the five years since the publication of the articles, a new generation has entered the workplace, Generation Z. Having different generations in the workplace poses a challenge for any business and is an opportunity for further research and development to help leaders determine what they need to do to lead all of the generations in the workplace.
Main Concepts and Business Challenges
The landscape of Human Resource Management is changing. An employee doesn’t just work for the employer that pays them directly, but within a network of businesses (Swart & Kinnie, 2014). A worker works across the boundaries of the organization in which he works as well as the organizations within the network. Workers share knowledge amongst the organizations within the networks.
Winter and Jackson (2014) presented the claim that younger workers have different values than past generations, and this can be challenging to existing norms. The authors explored both value based organizations and person base organizations and the younger worker. Winter and Jackson presented the idea that the younger worker is motivated social ethically rather than strictly by money. Additionally, the employment relationship of a younger worker is one with a manager that understands the need for direct communication and inclusion.
The idea that different generations have different expectations and needs from an employer demands further research. Organizations employ Baby Boomers, Generation X, Generation Y (Millennials), and Generation Z all in the same facility. More research would reveal how these generations can work together despite their differences in work ethic and expectations. Winter and Jackson (2014) presented an article that discussed millennials and older workers. A new generation, Generation Z, has entered the workplace since the publication of that article.
Generation Z is achievement oriented and has less work experience than the previous generation (Schroth, 2019). Additionally, Generation Z is more likely to suffer from anxiety and depression. Managers must find new ways to deal with the new generation and the anxiety they bring to the job (Shellenbarger, 2019). How managers dealt with past generations does not work as well for the newest generation.
Value in Researching
There is value in conducting research on how to manage different generations of workers all within the same department or organization. Each generation has a set of expectations, work ethics, and motivations. Leaders need to know how to look at these factors and assess how to bring all the generations together to be successful while fulfilling the needs of each employee, no matter what generation.
Unit 5 focused on Human Resource Management and the way that the landscape of the workplace is changing. Four different generations work together in organizations and leaders need to know how to lead new teams that consist of all four generations. Tactics and motivation that worked in the past are not working for the newer generations. Different expectations and higher levels of anxiety are making leaders look at new ways to produce results and lead their teams. Further research is necessary to bring an understanding of all four generations and how they can interact with each other to be successful.
Schroth, H. (2019). Are you ready for Gen Z in the workplace? California Management Review (61)3, 5-18. doi:10.1177/0008125619841006.
Shellenbarger, S. (2019, May 11). EXCHANGE — class of 2019 — work & family: The most anxious generation goes to work — how managers can help new hires steer past fear — and how young workers can be more effective. Wall Street Journal Retrieved from http://library.capella.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%…
Swart, J., & Kinnie, N. (2014). Reconsidering boundaries: Human resource management in a networked world. Human Resource Management, 53(2), 291-2310. doi:10.1002/hrm.21551
Winter, R., & Jackson, B. (2014). Expanding the younger worker employment relationship: Insights from values-based organizations. Human Resource Management, 53(2), 311-328. doi:10.1002/hrm.21600
Discussion #2 (need reply 75-words)
Managers at all levels of an organization can influence the design, adoption, enactment, and implementation of human resource management (HRM) strategy and practice (Steffensen, Ellen, Wang, & Ferris, 2019). However, the extant literature lacks a systematic investigation of managers’ roles in the design, adoption, enactment, and implementation of human resource management strategy and practice. Consequently, there are opportunities for future research regarding managerial impacts on human resource management content, process, and outcomes at each managerial level within organizations. This post discusses an opportunity for future research in the area of human resource management identified by Steffensen et al. (2019), discusses the main points from the Swart and Kinnie (2014) article regarding human resource management, and draws a conclusion regarding the benefits that may be obtained from research in the area of interest identified in the Steffensen et al. article.
Opportunity for Future Research
At the level of lower to middle managers (LTMM), Steffensen et al. (2019) point out that current studies focus on LTMMs’ roles in HRM implementation. The focus on HRM implementation at the LTMM level resulted in a dearth of studies that examined LTMMs’ roles in strategy and decision-making. So, the current literature provides much less information about LTMMs regarding the adoption of HRM content than it does regarding HRM process and outcomes. According to Steffensen et al., understanding how a firm might adopt HRM content that accentuates LTMMs’ strengths is an important area of study.
For example, Steffensen et al. (2019) point out that the ability-motivation-opportunity framework proposes that LTMMs abilities, motivations, and opportunities are predictive of their effectiveness in HRM. However, extant research findings may not shed light on how these LTMM factors affect HRM content; however, they do suggest LTMMs make contributions that firms should account for when determining what HRM content to adopt. Accordingly, Steffensen et al. (2019) recommend examining the bottom-up influence of LTMM factors on decision-making regarding HRM content within organizations.
Unit 5 HRM Main Concepts & Business Challenge
The significant points of the Swart and Kinnie (2014) study were the identification of (a) three network types, i.e., interactive, interwoven, and integrated; (b) the employment challenges associated with a networked working environment, i.e., the inherent tensions associated with each network; (c) the identification of three HRM models appropriate for networked working, i.e., buffering, borrowing, and balancing (Swart & Kinnie, 2014). According to Swart and Kinnie, cross-boundary working has implications for today’s, industrially focused HRM models where employees work for a single firm and work takes place within clearly defined boundaries. For example, current models lack the ability to address personnel issues where a separate organization exists at the network level, parties contribute to a team situated at network level, the firms and the network are the centers of work activity, or employment identity recognizes the firm and the networked team as is the case in an integrated network model (Swart & Kinnie, 2014).
Managers at all levels of an organization can influence the design, adoption, enactment, and implementation of human resource management (HRM) strategy and practice (Steffensen et al., 2019). Although the ability-motivation-opportunity framework proposes that LTMMs abilities, motivations, and opportunities are predictive of their effectiveness in HRM, extant research findings may not shed light on how these LTMM factors affect HRM content. Therefore, examining the bottom-up influence of LTMM factors on decision-making regarding HRM content within organizations may provide valuable insight into, at present, an understudied area of HRM. Additionally, due to the embeddedness of many of today’s LTMM positions in the three network types identified by Swart and Kinnie (2014), examining the bottom-up influence of LTMM factors on decision-making regarding HRM content in a networked environment may provide important information that aids in developing HRM models better-suited for today’s networked working environments (Steffensen et al., 2019).
Steffensen, D. S., Ellen, B. P., Wang, G., & Ferris, G. R. (2019). Putting the “management” back in human resource management: A review and agenda for future research. Journal of Management, 45(6), 2387-2418. doi:10.1177/0149206318816179
Swart, J., & Kinnie, N. (2014). Reconsidering boundaries: Human resource management in a networked world. Human Resource Management, 53(2), 291-310. doi:10.1002/hrm.21551